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Chaplin—First, Last, And Always

Chaplin—First, Last, And Always

For me, comedy begins with Charlie Chaplin. I know there were screen comedies before he came along, and I appreciate the work of everyone from Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Drew to Max Linder. But none of them created a persona as unique or indelible as the Little Tramp, and no one could match his worldwide impact.

The miracle of the “golden dozen” two-reelers he made for Mutual Film Corporation in 1916-17, just a few years after his motion picture debut, remains unmatched almost a century later: twelve perfectly-formed comedies (The Immigrant, Easy Street, The Adventurer, The Cure, et al), filmed one after another, that remain as fresh and funny as the day they were made. (Kevin Brownlow and David Gill’s landmark documentary Unknown Chaplin reveals how much hard work, and trial and error, went into the creation of these films, but of course the effort doesn’t show in the final product.)

Curiously, Chaplin’s earliest work for Mack Sennett’s Keystone Company has been difficult to see, except in scattershot fashion, over the years. What’s more, because no one claimed ownership of the films and most of the original negatives vanished years ago, it has been virtually impossible to find decent copies of many titles from Chaplin’s first, formative year in the movie business.

No one argues that these are great comedies; most of them aren’t. But what if we couldn’t read all of Shakespeare’s plays, or explore Mozart’s lesser compositions? The 35 films Chaplin made at a rapid clip during his initiation-year in motion pictures are essential viewing. They allow us to witness how an experienced, if youthful, comic from England became a self-assured performer in front of the camera—and sowed the seeds that would transform him into an artist.

Now, thanks to a consortium of international archives and private collectors, and the efforts of Serge Bromberg’s LobsterFilm in France, the best existing prints and negatives of all but one short from 1914 have been gathered, examined shot-by-shot, and—

—digitally restored to produce the finest possible copies of his work. Every film is accompanied by a newly-commissioned music score by an all-star array of silent-film accompanists including Robert Israel, Stephen Horne, Rodney Sauer and the Mont Alto Motion Picture Orchestra, and Ken Winokur’s band, to name just a few. The four-disc set, Chaplin at Keystone, released by Flicker Alley, also includes Chaplin’s first feature-film appearance, in Sennett’s Tillie’s Punctured Romance, an early Chaplin cartoon, and even an excerpt from the heretofore-unknown short A Thief Catcher (recently discovered by Paul Gierucki of Laughsmith Entertainment) in which Charlie plays a Keystone Kop. John Bengtson does his usual fine detective work in tracking down Los Angeles locations where these films were shot, while an accompanying booklet includes documentation on the films, an essay by Jeffrey Vance about Chaplin’s work at Keystone, and some rare photos.

Some of the prints look great, and others merely adequate, but on the whole they are far superior to anything we’ve seen before—in 8mm, 16mm, or 35mm. Original main titles and intertitles have been painstakingly recreated from the most reliable sources.

Of course, the films themselves remain a mixed bag. Charlie’s first film, Making a Living, is actually quite enjoyable, although he plays a dandy, and not his familiar Tramp. Subsequent films in the chronology reveal his first appearances as the character who would achieve almost-instantaneous fame around the globe. But while the externals fall into place pretty quickly, this is not the little fellow we know and love: he’s crass and crude. It’s fascinating to see what bits of physical shtick Charlie brought with him from the Music Hall and which now-familiar mannerisms evolved over time. It is also interesting to see how the newcomer to Hollywood worked with his fellow clowns (Ford Sterling, Chester Conklin, the endearing Mabel Normand, the engaging Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle, et al). We also get to see how Charlie develops as a director in these primitive, knockabout farces.

Kicking seems to be the primary activity in most Keystone shorts: kicking people in the rear, in the stomach, almost anywhere on the body so long as it registers anger or annoyance and causes the other person to fall down. Bit by bit, Chaplin manages to carve out his own brand of humor, and every now and then, he injects a piece of pantomime that is distinctively his own.

The Keystones almost never make me laugh, but I can’t stop watching them, looking for signs of the Chaplin-to-come. That is their heritage, and for that reason they are priceless.

If the Sennett oeuvre is Chaplin in embryonic form, Modern Times (1936) shows him at the peak of his powers. It is one of the greatest comedies ever made. I fell in love with it at the age of eight and my mother took me to see it when it was re-released theatrically.

I’ve owned Modern Times in more formats and versions than I can count, including a fine laserdisc produced by David Shepard and two previous DVD releases. Even so, I would recommend the new two-disc set from Criterion, not so much for the picture and sound (which were already fine, but look and sound even better) but for the generous number of superior bonus features. Chaplin chronicler Jeffrey Vance narrates an excellent background piece on the making of the picture, illustrated by rare photos from the Chaplin archives. John Bengtson has outdone himself with a piece about the locations where the film was shot that, also provides a thoughtful picture of a young, growing Los Angeles. Oscar-winning filmmakers and film buffs Craig Barron and Ben Burtt (who most recently hosted a behind-the-scenes look at Tarzan for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences) focus on Chaplin’s use of visual and aural effects, a little-remarked-upon aspect of his work as a director. You’ll learn some fascinating tidbits.

Chaplin biographer David Robinson is heard on a commentary track, while that wonderful raconteur David Raksin tells of his experiences working with Charlie on the music for Modern Times. (This interview first appeared on the 1992 laserdisc.) Alistair Cooke’s home movie of Chaplin and Paulette Goddard on an ocean voyage aboard Charlie’s yacht—some of which was used on the most recent DVD release of Richard Attenborough’s Chaplin—is shown in its entirety, with a Donald Sosin piano score and an interview with Cooke’s daughter. There is also a Cuban short subject, For the First Time (1967), about an audience’s initial encounter with Modern Times, and a charming documentary about the context and impact of the picture featuring the gifted Belgian filmmakers Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, which appeared on the Warner Home Video release of the Chaplin comedy. Finally, Criterion has included David Shepard’s restoration of the great 1916 two-reeler The Rink (with an orchestral score by Carl Davis) which spotlights the same roller-skating prowess Charlie displays in a famous scene in Modern Times.

As usual there is also a handsome booklet with original essays about Chaplin, including a piece by Lisa Stein that excerpts the magazine articles he wrote during his global tour in the early 1930s called “A Comedian Sees the World.”

If you want to lift your spirits, and do a lifelong favor for a young person you care about, watch Modern Times together.

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Reg Hartt

These films are best when seen by an audience that knows little or nothing about Chaplin and could care less about knowing.

An audience of this kind watches the films for their own sake not for a glimpse into the Chaplin that was to come.

As someone who has had over forty years worth of experience with audiences of this type I can tell you these films are killers.

People go into hysterics watching them.

One common complaint I hear from buffs is that these films lack structure.

The composer Darius Milhaud saw the Keystone films in South America. He wrote a piece of music, LE BOEUF SUR LE TOIT, designed to go with any Charlie Chaplin film. It runs the exact length of a Chaplin Keystone one reel film and nails every moment with incredible precision. Play it twice for the two reelers.

The restoration work on these films is first rate. It is a real service to history.

I am not a fan of the scores on these prints. They are too busy. They try to be funny in their own right thus competing with the films. They get in the way of watching Chaplin. They miss the aspect of dance that Chaplin incorporated in his own scores. They are, to put it bluntly, conventional and trite.

As an experiment I tried programming the Keystones to an audience using contemporary rock music.

The music quickly became just a background to Chaplin.

The audiences laughed themselves silly.

During one of The Toronto Film Festivals a Chaplin short was played on a huge outdoor sign (the kind used to show commercial television images).

Pedestrian traffic stopped for several blocks as folks paused to watch the movie.

Chaplin is still the King.

As a side note Chaplin told his wife his body would be stolen after his death. “Don’t give them a cent. I will be found later,” he told her.

There is so much to this man’s life that is worth reconsidering.

Contemporary comedy still uses the Mack Sennett model.

It is about time people studied Chaplin’s Keystones (and I do not mean in a classroom) to learn how to take motion picture comedy back to the level Chaplin took it when the BBC broadcast live to England over the radio from The Albert Hall the twenty minutes of solid laughter that is the climax of THE GOLD RUSH.

in MY AUTOBIOGRAPHY Chaplin tells us, until he read Ralph Waldo Emerson’s ON SELF-RELIANCE he thought the doors open to the sons of the rich were closed to him.

“It was as is I was handed a golden birthright,” writes Chaplin.

One Chaplin biographer quoted this from Emerson in his book: “Insist on yourself; never imitate. Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of a whole life’s cultivation; but of the adopted talent of another, you have only an extemporaneous, half possession. That which each can do best, none but his Maker can teach him. No man yet knows what it is, nor can, till that person has exhibited it. Where is the master who could have taught Shakspeare? Where is the master who could have instructed Franklin, or Washington, or Bacon, or Newton? Every great man is a unique. The Scipionism of Scipio is precisely that part he could not borrow. Shakspeare will never be made by the study of Shakspeare. Do that which is assigned you, and you cannot hope too much or dare too much. ”

That’s good, even great but the part that stirs me and I am certain stirred Chaplin, is this: “Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist. He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness, but must explore if it be goodness. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind. Absolve you to yourself, and you shall have the suffrage of the world. I remember an answer which when quite young I was prompted to make to a valued adviser, who was wont to importune me with the dear old doctrines of the church. On my saying, What have I to do with the sacredness of traditions, if I live wholly from within? my friend suggested, — “But these impulses may be from below, not from above.” I replied, “They do not seem to me to be such; but if I am the Devil’s child, I will live then from the Devil.”

God, that’s courage.


God, the breath of freedom that blows through those words!

It’s no wonder the boy from the slums of England rose so high.


I actually find Kid Auto Races very funny. In fact, having a better print of it is the key reason I’m buying the set. I haven’t seen many of the other Keystones, but hopefully at least one or two will be as funny.


Mack Sennett still lives in the Mack Sennett studios
in Silverlake. Independents: I shoot there and it is
a wonderful experience. 100 year old facility that is
very modern and fully equipped and modest pricing
A lovely place to shoot!

Kevin Coffey

As usual, right on the money, Leonard.
Been waiting to see good quality Chaplin Keystones for years, and to me this reissue is as important as having all the Disney shorts available.

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