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Review: ‘United Red Army’ A Text Book Heavy Look At History

Review: 'United Red Army' A Text Book Heavy Look At History

Let’s say that 100 minutes is the perfect running time for a film and something that all types of audiences can get behind without complaint. Within that standard is about 20 minutes of leniency; remove that much and things feel brisk, tack on that much and different elements are allowed to flourish which is likely to lead to a more satisfying conclusion. But why does a movie exceeding two hours feel like work just by reading the running time? Even a 130 minute movie will induce some sort of sigh — are those extra ten minutes really pushing things over the edge?

Still, we can’t avoid long flicks or they’ll haunt our cinephile to-do list forever (this writer has yet to touch any of the “Lord of the Rings” trilogy, and let’s not even mention any late Peter Watkins that are severely overdue for a sit-down). A more rational and legitimate criticism of the 2+ hour epics is that many of them tend to have it down to a science, making an extended experience too predictable — the first 40-60 minutes is set-up and whatever’s left over is the meaty stuff, successfully taking off from the foundation laid before it. Does it work? Generally, yes, regardless of how boring and obvious the template is, the post-Act One material is rarely unrewarding.

But we can’t forget about the ones that don’t waste a single second, ones that either neglect the template or hide it well: “Casino” cracks and pops with kinetic energy from the get-go, “Che” jumps among several differently toned time periods that are never dull and always acute, “The Weeping Meadow” has Theodoros Angelopoulos sculpting in time in a devastatingly beautiful early 1900s Greece. Time spent with these masterful works is a wonderful excursion; each consistently stimulating yet completely individual in their accomplishment. All that said, the rage of a woman scorned is nothing compared to what a lengthy, horrible cinema can induce. Even an average and relatively harmless one feels interminable, losing goodwill simply because it overstayed its welcome.

United Red Army” by stalwart Japanese filmmaker Koji Wakamatsu lives in the land of excessive features, but it doesn’t follow the cliched path. Unfortunately, that’s much to its own detriment — not only does it peak 190 minutes, but almost the entire first hour is an overly expository and corpse-dry slideshow of stills, newspaper articles, text, and the occasional brief reenactment, all set to very generic rock and roll (which somehow came from the brain of experimental musician Jim O’Rourke).

The subject is this — after the Japan-US Security Treaty in 1951, students in the Asian country heavily protested against their Communist Government and held scathing rallies in various universities. After a failed occupation of Tokyo University (which ended violently), the most radical students splintered and formed various groups (Red Army Faction and Revolutionary Left Wing among them) and decided to fight back with guerilla warfare, moving underground and eventually unifying into the United Red Army. Despite their attacks on police; the group were mostly holed in and fought amongst each other, taking most of their own lives due to their heated debates and ultimate lack of trust. In an interview promoting the film, the director explained that the history books gloss over this movement and provide a one-sided nationalistic perspective; he also states that contemporary native youth have not a clue of this group. He argues that in order to provide proper context, an extensive rundown highlighting nearly every date is necessary, starting from their student-uprising-beginnings to the union of RAF and RLF.

Fair enough, but there’s more than a few problems here. The fact that a more digested rundown of events regulated to opening title cards wasn’t even considered is a bit alarming. Cinema is a great tool for teaching, but few are going to listen to a lecture, no matter how brilliant, if it’s presented in the dullest fashion possible. The insistence of stating nearly every event leading up to the group’s final formation also leads to a barrage of facts, most of which aren’t even given time to register before the next historical nugget pops onto the screen. It’s much too text-book, a mess that is absolutely excruciating to sit through. It gets so bad that one thinks they should be taking notes in fear of a post-screening exam. So while the director’s intentions are good, it ultimately backfires due to the number of specifics and the rate at which we are bombarded with them. It’s near unbelievable that this back story couldn’t have been simplified (we more or less did so above) or at least done in a more artful, less unendurable way.

But forget us and our pity party. The biggest disservice is done to the next section, which suffers greatly because of its job in convincing the audience to stick around and care. Finding a new base in the mountains, the faction trains with armed weapons and practices various terrorist activities. But crawling around in the long grass and philosophizing in a dim cabin are outweighed by tension, mistrust, and insecurity. Various members catch others in questionable yet ultimately nit-picky situations that go against the core’s beliefs — thus, they are tortured and made to repent for their mistakes in a process titled “self-criticism.” The group’s instability coupled with various arrests and runaways ultimately shrinks their once ardent collective into less than a handful of insanely dedicated/dedicatedly insane members. In the final chapter, only five of them survive and hole up in an inn, taking a hostage and facing a shoot-out with the police.

It’s a shame that so much of this narrative is spent picking up the pieces of a disastrously insipid opening, because it’s actually quite well done. The filmmaker, now 75, was successful in the pink-film niche, a subgenre comprising of weird soft-core pornography. He also worked alongside great directors such as Hiroshi Teshigahara and Nagisa Oshima, even producing the notorious “In The Realm Of The Senses” for the latter. Taking that into account, the final two chapters of “United Red Army” very much feel like they were composed by someone during that 1960s heyday, from the behavior of the actors to the bleak, seemingly aged film stock. He also keenly avoids sympathy and sentimentality, refusing to devolve the film into being a story of tragic rebels quieted by an evil government. No, he keeps us distant, displaying their original good intentions and how their activism organization morphed them into a self-destructive cult. It’s a tragedy in the sense that such positive thinking deteriorated into something so different, something that orchestrated their ultimate annihilation. Wasted youth is what he’s most concerned with, and keeping with that idea, brief text is laid over the screen whenever someone dies, describing their lives before the fatal incident.

By the time the final sequence in the lodge rolls around, Wakamatsu has more than regained the steering of the ship and effectively gets the most out of the last few faithful members holed up with a captive and fending off spurts of police intervention. It’s amazing how well the director uses his single-setting locations; both the cabin and the inn never feel too small or claustrophobic, rather, they feel quite large and lived in — comparisons to what Alfred Hitchcock did with his lone location in “Lifeboat” wouldn’t be too far off. This talent is also helpful for the pacing, his constant inventiveness and weighty conflicts (both from within the group and outside of it) are always absorbing — just what the Three Hour Movie Doctor ordered.

But even after proper digestion, it’s hard to come to terms with that abysmal, short-sighted opening. The weakness of it does not eradicate the rather captivating following 2/3rds, but the strength of the latter does not make up for the lengthy initial misfire. By the time the credits roll, we’re not talking about the substance, but of the bad first impressions given by the structure — and that is not going to bode well when we analyze how our precious time was spent. [C]

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Christopher Bell

I will eventually see them LOTRs…

Christopher Bell

“Alamar” is incredible! Thanks for checking it out :)

But yes, I do agree with that as well – I think “Wendy and Lucy” is about 80 minutes, but it definitely feels around 2 hours. Nothing against that, I do love it, but pacing plays into it heavily.


There are a thousand movies that are 90 minutes and feel longer than the great three hour films mentioned here. The problem with the industry is defining a standard that people conform to in the first place. I don’t know how many times I thought to myself, “wow, that movie would’ve been great if it was about half the length” but it was expanded to fit a full length feature, which never should have happened.

I finally got around to seeing Alamar (which was recommended here, thank you) and it was absolutely wonderful during the entire 70 minutes. It didn’t need to be longer, didn’t need to be shorter.

I would rather pay $5 in an independent movie house to see a 40-50 minute film than $12 to see the same movie in the multiplexes ruined by forcing it to be longer. Let’s change our expectations of the movie-going experience and create a more dynamic cultural awareness of the purpose of filmmaking.

Totally agree about ROTK, BTW. The last hour was pure garbage. It would’ve been a thousand times better if it had just evolved into a gay Hobbit porno, instead of just hinting at it.

The Playlist

ROTK, everyone should see it once, but yeah, it does end 50 times and is the only LOTR film i can’t really sit all the way through on a second screening. Too many damn denouements. Still pretty solid though.

Katie Walsh

Kevin: ROTK is skippable. It ends about 50 times. Frodo and Sam spend the second half of the movie crying and saying goodbye constantly and it is really annoying and boring. I have the box set and I don’t think I have ever watched ROTK. Just Two Towers over and over… (god I am a NERD).

Kevin Jagernauth

I’m also one of those folks that never finished LOTR. I saw the first two but missed the third one in theaters and then kind of dreaded sitting for four hours to see how it all ended. Though everyone tells me I should watch so I probably will at some point.

Katie Walsh

Chris Bell, you NEED to holler at some LOTR, stat, man! Those movies are my comfort food when I am under the weather. Especially Two Towers is GREAT. In your defense, the head of my undergrad film department, who is pretty much a legend in Film Studies thinks any movie over 90 minutes is too long. Sure, she watches them, but she thinks it’s excessive.

Christopher Bell

130 minutes sounds like work to a lot of people. And I love “Yi Yi,” “Solaris,” etc. etc which all reach the 3 hour mark.. No, not everyone feels that way, but some people do.

I wasn’t really complaining, it was just an observation – one that I do partake in from time to time that I find particularly shallow but still happens none-the-less.

Stephen M

130 minutes sounds like work to you? Seriously? Half the greatest films I’ve ever seen have been 3 hours long (Lawrence of Arabia, Seven Samurai, The Godfather Part 2, Yi Yi, The New World, Andrei Rublev, etc.) and you can’t get over the 2 hour mark?

I think that’s just a hang-up you have, man. Not everyone feels the same way.

And yeah, I realize you mentioned long movies that work, but starting off complaining like that just irritated me.

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