Going to the Source

Going to the Source

It’s no
secret that John Ford’s 1939 Western classic Stagecoach was based on a magazine story by Ernest Haycox called
“Stage to Lordsburg.” Until this month I’d never read any fiction by that
author, but a friend recommended Bugles
in the Afternoon
, which inspired a mediocre 1952 movie starring Ray Milland
and directed by Roy Rowland. The story takes place ten years after the Civil
War and deals with a man who enlists in the U.S. Cavalry at a remote outpost in
North Dakota, little dreaming that he will be a participant in the battle of Little
Big Horn. He is deliberately quiet about his past, including a blood feud that
drove him out of the Army a decade ago and soured him on women.

There’s
nothing much to recommend about the movie, a standard-issue Warner Bros.
production with a capable cast, credited to two experienced screenwriters:
Geoffrey Homes (a pseudonym for Daniel Mainwaring) and Harry Brown. But the
book is a revelation.

Not only does
Haycox understand the disposition of career soldiers and the mundane but
revealing details of life at a dusty fort: he knows the West, from its appearance
to its smells, from sun-up to sundown. He is a keen observer of human nature,
to boot. One wouldn’t seek out a “Western writer” for nuanced prose about the
looks that pass between a man and woman—what they tell, and what they
withhold—but Haycox is a masterful weaver of words.

Here’s how
his book opens, with a chapter titled “That Bright Day—That Far Land:” “The town
had a name but no shape, no street, no core. It was simply five buildings,
flung without thought upon the dusty prairie at the eastern edge of Dakota, and
these stood gaunt and hard-angled against the last of day’s streaming sunlight.
The railroad, which gave the town a single pulse beat once a day, came as a
black ribbon out of emptiness, touched this Corapolis with hurried
indifference, and moved away into equal emptiness. The five buildings were
alone in a gray-yellow space which ran outward in all directions, so empty that
the tiring eye never saw where earth ended and sky began. There were no trees
in this world, no accents, no relieving interruptions; nothing but the gray
soil rolling on and a short brown grass turned crisp and now ready to fade when
winter temperatures touched it.”

It’s at this
remote weigh station that we’re introduced to the hero and heroine who happen
to be traveling West on the same stagecoach.  

I enjoyed the
book so much I dove into another of his novels right away: Canyon Passage became a movie in 1946 starring Dana Andrews, Susan
Hayward and Brian Donlevy, adapted by Ernest Pascal and directed by Jacques
Tourneur. I haven’t seen it in many years; I remember it being good, but I
doubt that it can compare to the feast that Haycox provides on the printed
page. His characters soar with life and never fall into the realm of
stereotype; they are a mass of contradictions, for this man truly understands
human nature.

 Another
friend who shares my passion for old-time radio suggested I read Frederic
Wakeman’s best-seller The Hucksters,
which MGM adapted in 1947. Having revisited the film just months ago (thanks to
a recent release by Warner Archive), I was keen to see how the book differed. The
story takes place in the waning days of World War Two, and its protagonist,
who’s just returned to civilian life after working for the Office of War
Information, has no use for rationing and other such annoyances. For instance,
he expects his secretary to do whatever is necessary to book him the proper
accommodations for his trip to the West Coast.

The narrator
explains, “Now that airplanes were impossible to ride without priorities, it
was again fashionable to ride the Twentieth Century Limited and the Santa Fe
Chief or Super Chief for the trip between coasts. All the radio and movie
people spent a lot of time, thought, and bribe money finagling space on those
deluxe trains. One of the reasons was that you traveled with your own kind.
Especially on the Super Chief, which was a sort of exclusive club for the
Hollywood-New York commuters. It was one of the symbols of the entertainment
fraternity, like gold Dunhill lighters, glossy women and hand-painted neckties.”

Naturally,
the novel is much more frank about sexual matters and even deals briefly with
anti-Semitism. But I was pleasantly surprised to see how skillfully Luther
Davis, Edward Chodorov and George Wells maintained the thrust of the novel in
their screenplay, while devising a new and (to my mind) improved love story to
replace the lackluster one in the book.

Wakeman was
one of the 1940s “Mad Men” who decided to expose the advertising game and with
it the inner workings of network radio, which was under the control of ad
agencies back then. Much of this is maintained in the film, including the
portrayal of an outrageously despotic soap manufacturer played by Sydney
Greenstreet—and based on American Tobacco’s notorious George Washington Hill.
(MGM was not inclined to replicate another character plainly inspired by MCA’s
Jules Stein, however.) The film is well-cast up and down the line, with perfect
parts for two leading ladies, Deborah Kerr and Ava Gardner. Reading the novel, I
couldn’t help but picture Adolphe Menjou as Clark Gable’s business partner;
that’s how perfectly suited he is to that character.

This is a rare instance where
Hollywood was forced to sanitize a candid and racy book but managed to maintain
its cynical tone.

Nowadays, if
I know that film rights have been optioned for a novel, I usually avoid reading
it. I don’t want to be forced to make comparisons; I’d rather form an independent
opinion of the movie. But dipping back into the past and making those
comparisons has proven to be a refreshing and rewarding experience.

Incidentally,
if you don’t have a used-book dealer you already patronize, it’s never been
easier to find older books: you can try eBay, amazon.com, or go to www.abebooks.com or www.bookfinder.com.

 

 

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Comments

Jim Beaver

Interesting stuff, Leonard. The film version of BUGLES IN THE AFTERNOON was always of interest to me primarily for two reasons: it's one of the few movies George Reeves got to make after becoming TV's Superman, and it's one of the few movies I can think of that feature Custer's Last Stand but only as a peripheral event. I wonder if the book covers the Custer stuff more thoroughly. Would love to read Haycox's take on that.

Norm

Fascinating reading, er viewing, er both…nicely done from all view points…Maybe Hollywood will do their homework…or not…We sure could use more apocalyptic films…

Mike P

I must differ with Leonard's evaluation of the movie version of "Bugles in the Afternoon". This is a tremendously entertaining western that has perhaps one of the screen's most evil and cunning villains in Hugh Marlowe. Normally laid-back Ray Milland gives arguably his most athletic performance in an action film. Ray and Hugh's climatic fist fight during an all out Indian attack was/is one of my favorite all time western set pieces. It also has Forrest Tucker with an Irish accent and a wonderfully exciting score by Dimitri Tiomkin. "Canyon Passage" is also one of my very favorite celluloid westerns. Would love to see a proper DVD release of "Bugles". I believe Olive may have the current rights.

terry bigham

The late great John Huston made his rep as a adapter of novels and stories, from the hard-boiled tales of Hammett and Burnett to the classics of Melville, Kipling, Lowry, B.Traven and Joyce. And William Wellman is renowned for two pairs of popular fiction adapations, by James Street ("Nothing Sacred" and "Goodbye, My Lady") and Walter Van Tilburg Clark ("The Ox-Bow Incident" and "Tarack of the Cat")

Kristine

Leonard,
Two other movies based on books, "Son of Fury:Benjamin Blake" by Edison or Edson Marshall,which was made into a movie starring Tyrone Power and "Where The Boys Are", book written by Glendon Swarthout, was made as movie "Where The Boys Are", starring Dolores Hart(now a nun, Mother Dolores Hart, whose autobiography, "The Ear Of The Heart" is out)and Connie Francis(her film debut in 1960). I always like reading your website.

evan jeffrey williams

I love your excitement of discovery in this article. That's what film fans have with a new film but even better that you also read-as I do. Haycox's descriptions are as evocative as a John Ford film. THE HUCKSTERS is one of my favorite films also and it has more layers and cynicism than most MGM movies of the period. Gosh, why didn't Lux Radio Theater do a broadcast version? Ahem.

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