Which brings us back to the good ones. What made them so good? Tarantino is known for his good taste, taking from the best and making something all his own. Even though he changed the title (from "Rum Punch"), as well as the name and race of the main character, and put a blaxploitation spin on the movie, Leonard considered "Jackie Brown" to be the best of his adapted works. Tarantino’s dialogue has always been influenced by Leonard’s, therefore for him to adapt one of his books and infuse his own knack for colloquialisms was a natural transition. If you take a closer look at Tarantino’s first screenplay for "True Romance," you’ll likely agree that it’s one of the best Elmore Leonard stories not written by Elmore Leonard. It’s no surprise that the only time Tarantino has adapted someone else’s story it was one of Leonard’s. "Jackie Brown" remains Tarantino’s most understated and underrated film.
It’s worth noting that screenwriter Scott Frank adapted both "Get Shorty" and "Out of Sight" and, like Tarantino, clearly has a good grasp of cinematic versus literary language. All three of these films, particularly "Brown" and "Sight," strayed from the source materials’ linear structures to create experiences far more engaging for moviegoers. In terms of dialogue, Frank and Tarantino also knew precisely what to keep, what to omit, what to modify and what to add in order to translate it to the screen and complement the existing dialogue. Since Leonard’s dialogue has always received so much praise, a lot of screenwriters tend to leave it almost entirely intact, but lifting it straight off the page isn’t adapting it, it’s merely a lazy, uninspired recreation.
Admittedly, this examination of Leonard adaptations has taken a slightly narrowed view. I have omitted discussion of his contributions to the Western genre that resulted in such classics as "Hombre" (1967), "Valdez is Coming" (1971), and "3:10 to Yuma" (1957 and 2007). There have also been many made-for-TV movies and short films based on his work, but these are almost impossible to track down. You’re probably also wondering why I haven’t addressed the hugely successful FX series "Justified" based on Leonard’s reoccurring Raylan Givens character. From what I’ve seen, they have done a decent job of capturing that Leonard feel, but beyond the first episode, the stories have very little to do with his novels. This is not the first attempt to base an ongoing show around a Leonard character. For every "Justified", there’s a "Maximum Bob" (canceled after 7 episodes in 1998) and a "Karen Sisco" (10 episodes in 2003-04).
One adaptation that stands alone and deserves an honorable mention is John Frankenheimer’s "52 Pick-Up" (1986). During this period most Leonard adaptations were relegated to television and therefore have become virtually inaccessible. What sets "52 Pick-Up" apart is an established director who was actually able to get Leonard himself to help adapt the screenplay. The result was a strong suspense film devoid of humor and far seedier than the lighter crime films we’ve come to associate with the author. Another reason this films works in a way that many of the current ones don’t is that it is very much of its time and doesn’t try to hide that. Most of the recently adapted books, such as "Life of Crime", were written in the 70s and the adaptations try to recreate that retro feel because it’s the ‘in’ thing to do right now. In the 80s the only thing that was cool was the 80s.
I’m not demonstrating any kind of inspired brilliance when I say that these lesser adaptations would fare much better in the hands of more capable screenwriters and directors. All of the successful ones have been made by filmmakers of note ("Get Shorty" and "Out of Sight" were directed by Barry Sonnenfeld and Steven Soderbergh respectively). Leonard’s books have been a very important part of my literary diet since I was a teenager and it pains me to see these screenwriters come along thinking Leonard has already done their job for them, resulting in half-assed retellings. The fact that there will be no more new stories from Dutch makes me hold the old ones all the more dear. It would be nice to see some fresh talent behind them, like Andrew Dominik who did a great job adapting George V. Higgins crime novel "Cogan’s Trade" (re-titling it "Killing Them Softly") last year. Even though he lifted a lot of dialogue directly from the book, he updated the setting and directed the hell out of it with a visual style and layered soundscape that was all his own. Don Cheadle was supposed to make his directorial debut several years ago with an adaptation of Leonard’s "Tishomingo Blues". It was to star to Matthew McConaughey as a high diving casino performer and had potential to live up to that golden era, but was unfortunately scrapped for unpublicized reasons. Of course I’d settle for old talent as well. Scorsese has mentioned being a fan of Leonard’s and I think we’d all like to be treated to Marty’s take on one of Dutch’s crime yarns.
To finish this rant on a positive note, I know we haven’t seen the last of Dutch. While the man is gone, he has left us with a plethora of stories that can be picked up by anyone at any time and appreciated for the terse, unpretentious, satisfying pulp that they are. And while the film offerings of late haven’t been great, I have faith that in better hands we could see another golden era. "Killshot" and "Freaky Deaky" may have been botched once, but we know Hollywood has no issue taking a second pass at stories (though unfortunately they tend to do this with ones that got it right the first time). Then there are great books like "Tishomingo Blues," "The Pagan Babies" and over a dozen others haven’t even been touched yet. My hope is that younger audiences don’t see these recent B movies as a reflection of a B author, as Leonard is anything but. At this point, all that’s left to say is long live Dutch, you magnificent bastard.