There's so much archival footage in there, and it blends so well with the stuff that you recreated. I was wondering, first of all, what the process was for finding all of this. Did you start with a script and then narrow it down to find what you needed?Matt:
Tribeca Film Festival
It was much looser. We identified topics that we wanted to focus on from Jon's book. We didn't know how far back we could go. We developed an expansive list of topics and we collaborated with a group of researchers, our lead researcher was named Rosemary Rotondi, and she sourced an incredible amount of footage for us with a group of researchers at the National Archives, and in England and Germany. And from that pool of material we said, OK, there's a film here, this is the general scope of footage that we can find. Let's get more specific. Like, can you keep digging for more German swing kids stuff? Stuff like that. And that process we continued for multiple years. Really up until the end of the filmmaking, editing process we were still looking for footage. Could you talk a little about the recreations and how you decided what you wanted to recreate?Matt:
I've used recreations in other films I've made and the style I'm most interested in is footage that resembles actually archival. I wanted to shoot these in the style of period home movies from the 1920s, 30s, and 40s. And I knew that this film would have a certain intellectual dimension to it and that it would be demanding in that regard, just a film about a lot of ideas, a lot of history, and I wanted to provide the viewer an opportunity to just get lost in smaller stories that were more emotionally driven. And a big feature in Jon's book are the biographies of lesser known characters in history so it seemed important to telescope in some of those characters and we ended up choosing four that seemed like kind of a composite portrait of "teenager" as it was about to be born. And it was important to us to strike a particular balance between region and nationality, race, class, gender, and different types. In terms of conceptualizing those recreations I didn't want there to be an synced dialogue and all of those characters had to have real archival footage associated with them so that they could blend seamlessly.
And in terms of the actual creation of those recreations, I was really inspired to do everything non-digitally. We shot all 16mm, and my cinematographer Nick Bentgen worked very hard to figure out different ways to degrade our footage. We used uncoated 16mm lenses on hand-cranked Bolexs. We struck bleach bypass prints and hand degraded the footage. We used period references in our color grade to match the archival look that we were after.
The one thing that I was having trouble determining if they were real or not were some of the PSAs, because they're so ridiculous. I'm sure you noticed at the premiere, you wouldn't necessarily expect a documentary about oppression to be a laugh riot, but those were drawing a lot of laughs.
How did you cast the narrators, or what drew you to those specific people, because I think they're very good fits in terms of, like, Jena Malone, both her image and her voice kind of perfectly fit the tone and image of the film. She has kind of a timeless, but youthful voice. Same with Ben Whishaw, who has such a great voice for just reading things. Jason:
Jason: "Are you pregnant?!" "…YES!"
Yeah, that one is amazing.
Matt: Yeah, the thing that's interesting about news reels is, like recreations, they're incredibly scripted and shotlisted. A lot of the footage we used in the film are outtakes from news reels that have wide shots, medium shots, close ups that we were able to re-purpose. They're basically protodocumentaries that were scripted and shortlisted but used real people. So they do provide an authentic flair for the time, but like our recreations are kind of meticulously planned. We significantly took that material out of context to transform its meaning. And yeah, it was important for us to mix up a lot of different tones in the film, so that it's not just a heavy hitting social, political issue topic. It's also a pop subject.
Jason: He did it with the sound, too. There's hardly any synced sound in the whole movie. So, like you have a hard time seeing what's recreated and what's not there's also what sound is real and what's not? Does what I'm hearing really belong with what I'm seeing?
Matt: Almost all of the sound is created and it has this kind of immersive soundscape quality because it's all so intensely designed.
Jon: Also, the thing about the "I'm pregnant" thing is that it's so ridiculously melodramatic and that's also another way that the media sees youth, in this incredibly melodramatic manner.
It's so funny because all of those PSAs are almost like parodies of PSAs. Like they're exactly what you picture when you think of them.
Jon: I was surprised that the girl said "yes" right there. Like she clearly couldn't take it any more!
Matt: And we use Nazi propaganda as well. So we use a lot of governmental and propaganda oriented imagery from a variety of contexts, all kind of rescrambled into a new form that transforms its original meanings and intentions.
Jon: Because there's obviously not a lot of footage from the kid's point of view, this is the thing. It's all adults saying this is what kids are.
Matt: So much of the material that exists is from the adult or authorities point of view. That's one of the reasons that we chose to tell the story from the point of view of youth, to show this generational tension that is at play throughout the film.
A friend of mine named M. Blash, who made a film called "The Wait" with Jena Malone, he recommended Jena as an actor that I might consider working with. I had heard her voice-over in Sean Penn's "Into the Wild" and thought it was really stylized and cool. I did some early experiments with her in a recording studio and it really helped me kind of imagine what this device could be. Almost like singing more than talking.
Then I connected with Ben Whishaw through a mutual friend and I'm just a huge fan of his work and I think he particular excels at bringing text to life. His start was in the world of Shakespeare and in "Bright Star" it was just incredible how he could bring Keates' poetry to life. So this was a perfect opportunity to transform these quotes we'd sourced from real teenage diaries and written sources and have him bring a lot of soul and depth to them as well in a British context.
Julia Hummer is an actress that I'm really interested in too. She was in Olivier Assayas' "Carlos" and is also a singer, and there's an incredibly vivid, youthful quality to her voice. She was also a skater punk and was discovered on the street for her breakthrough role in Germany. I believe this is the first time she's acted in English. That whole process was really collaborative and exciting with her. Jon, you said something at the premiere that I thought was really interesting about the stopping point of the film, that by 1945 youth culture kind of diverged in such a way that made it impossible to document a cohesive international experience. I was wondering if you could elaborate on that at all, like what exactly would you consider the "sequel" to "Teenage?"Jon:
The problem that I faced doing the book and the problem that I you would face if you were aiming to carry on the storyline to the post-war period is that there's so much stuff. Already by the time you get to the late thirties and early forties the graph is rising. And there's so much youth culture material after the second world war. Also, a lot of it's very familiar. There are a lot of histories of youth culture and a lot of books. How many books are there on Elvis? As it happens I think we could say something interesting about Elvis, but then you have to get the rights. If you want to use "Rebel Without A Cause," which is a key document, that's super expensive. And suddenly it all becomes a nightmare. What's great about focusing on the prehistory is that it draws up a lot of the themes in an unfamiliar period. It's a start, people could take isolated bits out of our film and out of post-war stuff and do a whole other film. This is just a foundation for a whole new way at looking at youth culture. Jason:
I'm also happy this movie was made because it does serve as a preservation in a lot of ways of this hard to find footage. Matt was saying two-thirds of the movie footage wise is stuff that, you know, is pretty much unseen. I feel like now someone's seen it and it's been preserved in a way. That's nice as a whole other document for future people to see. Jon
: I've seen hundreds of documentaries, because I like watching documentaries, and most of the footage we've found I hadn't seen. I think the movie also does a really good job of kind of alluding to punk and the punk sensibility without directly referencing it, both in the construction of the film, and obviously I'm sure a lot of that comes from the book too, but also in Bradford [Cox]'s score, which is incredible. Bradford is such a great choice because in interviews he always talks about having such a strong connection to seventies youth culture and seeing himself as sort of a punk figure.
"Jason made the point a couple of days ago that you could just make a CD out of the soundtrack as it is." -- Jon Savage
Yeah, that's why I wanted to work with him. He is a punk. I was drawn to Jon's book because I saw the punk philosophy playing out in the treatment of its history and I approached Bradford because he's one of my favorite contemporary musicians, but I knew aesthetically and thematically that this material connects to what he does and there's a real synergy there in terms of the music in the film, which is basically a character in the film because it plays so prominently throughout. Is there going to be a soundtrack or score release? Matt:
Figuring it out. Jon:
Jason made the point a couple of days ago that you could just make a CD out of the soundtrack as it is Jason:
Yeah, with all the talking and everything.Right, like a sound collage. I thought about that while watching.Matt:
I think of it kind of like a record where you could listen to it without paying attention to the words, but if you listen to the lyrics, in this case the voice-over, it deepens your understanding of the context of the narrative and it deepens the experience, but like a record it's something that is very experiential and musical.What was the collaboration like between the two of you in terms of the generation gap between you? I think that's really interesting in a film that's about generations in general. Matt:
It's cool for us. I'm a total fan of the time Jon came of age and did a lot of his seminal work and it's fascinating for me to learn about his experiences as a journalist and as a writer. I think he could say too, that it was inspiring for him to work with someone younger, right?Jon:
Totally. I had already done the book and was a bit jaded, and along comes Matt with a whole lot of enthusiasm and he got it, which is amazing. And it's incredibly exciting. Any age you are, it's nice to hang out with people of different ages. I think it's a grave mistake to hang out with your own peers all the time. So always in my life I've tried hanging around with older people and younger people. Obviously the range of older people available is beginning to diminish, so it's kind of great to hang around with younger people. But seriously, it made the subject come alive again.