"No feature filmmaker conceives - let alone executes -- their film for a mobile platform," Lipsky insists. "Makers frame their films in terms of the script and the story -- that's what drives decision making as to how a scene is shot and edited. I shoot a lot of close-ups and extra-close-ups and it would be antithetical to conceive a shot in terms of a handheld device." He is adamant that the new 4 inch screen of the iPhone 5 (with a 16:9 aspect ratio) or iPad 2's 9.7 inch (4:3 aspect ratio) is not up to the challenge of real filmmaking. "They are simply not acceptable ways of viewing a film," he argues.
Of course, Lipsky acknowledges that many people are watching shorter works, including TV shows, and even some feature-length movies on mobile devices. However, he warns that such viewing is not relevant to a director, an "auteur" in the classic maker sense, in framing and executing a scene.
"Documentary films are measured by their impact; they are stories created to engage people," said Jarmel, who, with her partner, Ken Schneider, founded PatchWorks Films in 1994 and is currently completing "Havana Curveball." Among some of their other recent works are "Speaking in Tongues," which won the Audience Award at the 2009 San Francisco Film Festival, and the ITVS-funded "Born in the U.S.A," which aired on the PBS series Independent Lens.
Speculating on what would likely work aesthetically for a documentary designed for a mobile platform, Jarmel acknowledged that the format has a different potential. "In a small format, there would likely be no wide shots, fewer subtleties like many 'in your face' videos on YouTube," she reflects. Equally critical, "it would have to be short-maybe 3 to 8 minutes."
However, she worries that the small screen further isolates viewers, offering no community experience. She acknowledges that online platforms-Facebook, Twitter, games, apps, or participatory storytelling-have great potential to take the story off the screen. These transmedia platforms can generate a lot of interest and create a different form of "community" experience.
The increasing, widespread adoption of small, mobile entertainment devices poses two challenges for indie filmmaking -- making vs. distributing. And makers are adapting to the new medium. Carton Evans of the Disposable Film Festival, which was created in order to democratize filmmaking by showcasing works made using smartphones, tablets, laptops, cameras and other non-traditional devices. Evans reports that the number of submissions increased from 60 when the festival started in 2008 to 2,000 this year.
Evans notes that filmmaking has been
repeatedly revolutionized by technology, whether Super8, video or today's
digital devices. "When
we started the festival seven years ago," he recalls, "we saw mobile video as
an experimental platform not unlike the avant-garde of the '70s."
then, makers have both adapted to the possibilities of the new medium and the
medium itself has expanded. Evans notes that while the festival focuses on short works, it has shown feature-length
films shot on an iPhone. And a host of
accessories, such as a $10 add-on lens for more widescreen shots, are now
These advances have enhanced the medium's aesthetic possibilities, according to Evans. "A new creative vocabulary is being developed," he said. "One film we showed last year was a thriller about man who stalks a woman through her webcam. It was shot on a webcam and invoked a sense of immediacy that could not be captured using a professional camera. It made everyone in the audience complicit in the act of stalking the character."
The fact that people shooting video with their iPhones or other devices is become ubiquitous, presents new opportunities for documentary makers. "Such shooting is less intrusive and fosters a greater sense of intimacy between maker and subject," said Evans.
Though filmmakers may not be able to limit the screens on which their movies are seen, they may be able to control the tools they use to make them. There are still filmgoers who buy seats in theaters to take in wide shots and panoramic views, but there are also stories that benefit from filmmaking technologies that can fit within the nooks and crannies of our lives to tell stories even more intimately.