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REVIEW: Two 1960s Animated Classics on Blu-ray

REVIEW: Two 1960s Animated Classics on Blu-ray

Walt Disney
and The Beatles, as cultural icons, seem at first to be as distant as the
Arctic and Antarctic. Perhaps that is true superficially, when simply viewing
one as old school and the other as the new vision. In reality, the two are more
intertwined than one might have thought, certainly as creative visionaries.
Most notably, each entity released major animated features within one year of
each other: The Jungle Book (1967) and Yellow Submarine (1968).

decade brings change, but in the 1960s, change, in all its light and darkness,
seemed on overdrive. As the end of the decade neared, the effect of the youth
movement on entertainment was encroaching on the tried-and-true showbiz “establishment.”

It was
during that time Walt Disney’s The Jungle
was released. The Jungle Book
was one of the most pivotal animated features in history for a number of
reasons. It was the last animated feature to benefit from the personal
supervision of Walt himself. Besides 101
, it was the most successful of Walt’s post-Sleeping Beauty features. And it sat squarely on one edge of a
cultural precipice with Yellow Submarine
perched on the other side.

features of the 1960s, which also include the sufficient but not earth shaking The Sword in the Stone, were produced in
the shadow of Sleeping Beauty’s
disappointing box office results. Animation in general was on shaky ground
throughout the industry, with most studios shuttering their short subject
production and some heading into TV.

“After Sleeping Beauty, things were different,” says Disney Legend Floyd Norman (and author of the book, The Animated Life), “there wasn’t as much money budgeted for
features.” Floyd witnessed this sea change in animation first hand. One of the
most noticeable differences in the “new” Disney animation was the striking look
of Xeroxed cels, which created a rough, sketchy look rather than the classic
look of smooth, hand-inked cels.

Walt was always on board with new technology, but he was dubious about the “scratchy” Xerox look. “He disliked it very much at first, but that changed as we moved on
to The Jungle Book,” says Norman. “The
xeroxed lines weren’t as slick as hand-inked ones, but they captured the actual
art of the animators’ drawings.”

The Disney
animation team of the ’60s was learning to overcome some disadvantages with
ingenuity and serendipity. This was also happening across the pond at London’s
TVC studio, a much smaller company specializing in commercials until the hit
ABC Saturday morning Beatles cartoon series became their project.

The Beatles
themselves didn’t care for the TV show, which was pretty sparse even by
Saturday morning standards. So they were ambivalent when Al Brodax of King
Features, also producer of the Beatles cartoon (as well as the ’60s Popeye, Snuffy Smith, Krazy Kat
and Cool McCool shows) suggested a
Beatles feature. TVC didn’t want to create a 90-minute version of the same
cartoon, so in their search for a new character design for the fab four, a
German art magazine yielded the work of popular European artist Heinz Edelman. It
was he who came up with the character designs and became the major influence on
the overall film look. The results were so explosive in the world of commercial
design, the term “Yellow Submarine” became part of the vernacular, even though
such designs had existed before on smaller scales.

Submarine was very limited, not just
in its animation, but in budget. Clever ideas solved problems and then became
iconic. The “Eleanor Rigby” sequence makes use of printing and reproduction
techniques of its day, but in such a vivid way that dazzled the audiences and
critics. The actual sub seen in most scenes was created with linotype prints so
it could be inserted on an image and appear to turn. Artistic marvels seemed to
materialize from thin air due to a young, enthusiastic artistic team and the
pressure of a clock that would not wait.

A young
team was also adding their fresh perspective to The Jungle Book. “It was a great time to be there,” recalls Floyd. “We were able to work with several of Walt’s “Nine Old Men,” who were very
generous in showing us how they did all the artistic things we had grown up
seeing in Disney movies.” Budgets being what they were, some animation repeats
(a waterfall, Mowgli’s strolls through the jungle) but the visuals, music and
story are just as strong as ever.

The Jungle Book turned out to be so successful that
it rivaled Walt Disney’s other recent triumph, Mary Poppins. Kiplings’ fans may have blanched about how the
original book was transformed into a jazzy, lighthearted romp, but the general
public didn’t care very much. The Jungle
also hit it big on records, winning the gold for its storyteller album
and fat profits for other merchandise, just based on its solid songs by the
Sherman Brothers and Terry Gilkyson, whose “Bare Necessities” was

Like the
recent hit Frozen, The Jungle Book managed to feature new songs
no one had become attached to on stage or radio, yet that were instantly
embraced. That’s pretty risky stuff. In this case, the Disney team did not have
TVC’s advantage of starting out with pre-sold Beatles hits. It must have bee a pleasure
to cherry pick songs from the Sgt. Pepper
album and other Beatle records at will. Plus, the group created a few new songs
for the film. Of course, simply having Beatles songs in a movie does not
guarantee success, as the Bee Gees’ spectacular 1978 misfire Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band

Yellow Submarine is presented by The Beatles and
they sing the songs, but they do not do the voices – not because they didn’t want
to, but because there schedules were crammed full as they were at their
international peak as performers. They also appear briefly at the end of the

The Beatles’
voices also do not appear in The Jungle
, even though it might have happened in an alternate universe. The four
vultures were conceived as Liverpudlian, mop-top types. There was talk of their
participating. Depending on the account, the Beatles either said “no,” or Walt
said their presence would date the film. The vultures kept the hair-dos but,
in a strange juxtaposition, instead sang as a barbershop quartet (dubbed by the


Phil Harris
dominates The Jungle Book, making it
the first true Disney animated “star vehicle” before Aladdin. Even though it was 1967, the “swinging'” music styles of
Harris and Louis Prima don’t seem dated, since these artists were still popular
at the time of the film’s release. It’s not Kipling, but it’s kickin’.

Walt Disney
was not averse to using popular music in his films. Even Snow White was done in the current style of the hit parade of its
day. His “package” animated features of the ’40s starred A-list recording
artists. While the older generation was still getting used to The Beatles
overall by the late ’60s, it is not out of the realm of possibility that Walt
might have eventually toyed with using contemporary music of the new
generation, had he learned that it was there to stay and not a passing fad.

But the
Disney Studios would probably have not done a feature like Yellow Submarine. That was the whole point. On the Submarine DVD/Blu-ray commentary,
Production Supervisor John Coates makes it clear that he has the highest regard
for Disney, as did his staff. He doubted that his staff could even accomplish a
Disney-like feature if they wanted to. But the goal was to do something

Whether you
like it or loathe it, you can’t deny that Yellow
is still one of the most different films of all time. So is Fantasia. One cannot avoid being
overwhelmed by the constant barrage of inventive images, colors and
indecipherable shapes. Like Alice in
, which captured the indescribability of dreams, Yellow Submarine still baffles and astounds. It’s difficult to explain in mere
words. (So is Fantasia: just what is
that thing waddling down the hallway in Toccata and Fugue, anyway?)

Neither TVC
nor Disney probably thought much about any kind of rivalry, but critics at the
time reveled in using Submarine to
diss Disney, suffering apparently a temporary amnesia about how Walt Disney
took such a commanding lead in bringing sound, color, features, stereo sound
and depth to the medium with Fantasia
and many other films. It was no coincidence that Fantasia was packing theaters with Disney fans like me and college
kids. If anything, Yellow Submarine
gave a boost to Fantasia.

What made
Submarine the darling of the hip and the wanna-be-hip was the music, since no animated feature had Beatles songs before. The other reason was the look, which was the “it” look in Europe that TVC caught as it was ascending the crest of its wave.
The film is an art director’s dream. What was irritating about some reviews was
the intent to make filmgoers and fans choose sides. Do you have to dismiss Jungle Book to like Yellow Submarine?

Though Yellow Submarine was completed on time, it
went over budget, leading to behind-the-scenes unpleasantness that meant there
would never be additional features produced under the same circumstances. In
the ensuing years, films like The Point
and even Richard Williams’ Raggedy Ann
& Andy
got inspiration from the Edelman/TVC visuals. The overall style
of Yellow Submarine manifested itself
most in advertising and product design. Suddenly companies like Shasta soda had
funky retro looks for their animated ads. Bubbliclious turned gum chewing into
an animated voyage through imagination. Perhaps more than any other entity, Sesame Street animated interstitials
affectionately recaptured the Submarine
feel (and seeing the “When I’m 64” sequence today, one might mistake the
numeric graphics for a Sesame Street

believes that Yellow Submarine is the
least dated of the Beatles’ three features because it’s an animated fantasy. He
is correct in that Submarine will
never cease to amaze, especially taken out of its ’60s context and allowed to
exist on its own terms. Its strongest attributes are its never-ending bag of
visual tricks, the Beatles songs—and let’s not forget George Martin’s Snowman-like score.

But Jungle Book moves seamlessly from
adventure to adventure, keeping a constant narrative thread in place. This is
where The Jungle Book shines with the
blend of veteran and new Disney talent. In Yellow
, we wait a little too long between set pieces before we meet the
beloved Boob. Though John, Paul, George and Ringo were already established as real-life
people, they’re not fully fleshed out as animation characters with which the
audience can identify. Overall, with its strength as a perpetual parade of
staggering visuals, Yellow Submarine
as a whole has the flavor of an independent animation film rather than the very
mainstream Disney fare.

Both films
share the power to draw in viewers no matter how many times they are
watched – even decades after The Jungle
beaming across one end of the cultural canyon and Yellow Submarine strobe-lighting at the opposite end.

So who
knows? Maybe when Mowgli left the jungle for the man village, he was really on
his way to Pepperland.

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